Protein-based therapy production begins with cell engineering.
Most biologic therapies are produced in engineered mammalian cell lines, with the goal of introducing advantages that turn these cells into tiny protein factories. Unfortunately, this approach is hampered by inherent limitations of slow growth, limited productivity, and low-stress resistance. One way to overcome these obstacles is host cell engineering, including gene introduction, overexpression, knockdown, and posttranscriptional silencing [Fischer et al. 2015].